In the past 6-12 months, the number of clients and referring veterinarians asking questions regarding the link between certain diets and heart disease in dogs has increased dramatically.
Recently, there has been an apparent association noted between dogs on boutique, exotic, and grain-free diets (BEG diets) and dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). Vegetarian, vegan and home-cooked diets also seem to be linked with DCM. While the exact cause is unknown, the association has been seen in cases around the country and has caused significant alarm among pet owners, primary care veterinarians, cardiologists and nutritionists.
BEG diets appear to be very popular with many owners looking to feed their pets a high-quality food. Some owners feed these diets at the recommendation of their breeder or primary care veterinarian. Many have been surprised and concerned when they learn of the association between certain diets and heart disease in their pets.
Dilated cardiomyopathy is one of the two most common types of acquired canine heart disease. It’s most commonly seen in large breed dogs such as Dobermans, boxers, and Great Danes. Some smaller breeds are affected by DCM (cocker spaniels), and cats are occasionally diagnosed with the condition as well.
Echocardiographic changes include left-sided heart enlargement and reduced systolic function. Arrhythmias are common (both supraventricular and ventricular), and many patients develop congestive heart failure.
Importantly, the most common acquired heart disease in dogs, degenerative valve disease, has not been associated with these diets. Nutritional deficiency should be considered an unlikely factor in an older small-breed dog with a loud heart murmur and left-sided cardiomegaly.
The recent cases of diet-associated cardiomyopathy were first reported in a group of golden retrievers. It has since been noted in many breeds, including those that commonly have genetic DCM (Dobermans, for example) as well as breeds in which DCM is unusual (small dogs).
Initially, it was suspected that taurine deficiency may be the cause of DCM in these dogs. The group of golden retrievers studied appeared to have low-to-normal reduced taurine levels and responded well to a diet change and supplementation with taurine. Golden retrievers, as a breed, are known to have lower taurine levels. Since that time, it has become clear that there is a second group of affected dogs who do not appear to have low taurine levels.
There are ongoing studies by veterinary nutritionists as well as cardiologists, and cases are continuing to be collected to gain more information. Additionally, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration announced in July 2018 that the FDA’s Center for Veterinary Medicine (CVM) and the Veterinary Laboratory Investigation and Response Network, a collaboration of government and veterinary diagnostic laboratories, are investigating this potential association.
If you have a patient diagnosed with DCM that is eating a BEG, vegetarian, vegan or home-made diet: